Water-Conserving Plumbing Fixtures
Most plumbing fixtures manufactured before 1980 are inefficient in their water usage. Fixtures manufactured between 1980 and 1992 are better, but those manufactured after the federal government's 1992 Energy Policy are best. Today's generation of toilets, shower heads and faucets offer superior water conservation capabilities.
Toilets in a typical office building account for almost 70% of water usage. Replacing a conventional 5-gallon-per-flush toilet with a 1.6 gallon-per-flush model can reduce water consumption by more than half. Likewise, older conventional shower heads are usually rated at 5 gallons a minute, while new "water miser" heads have a flow rate of 2.5 gallons per minute.
Waterless urinals are becoming more popular now, replacing the typical 3-gallon-per-flush models.
Photo courtesy of Uridan waterless urinals
The town of Windsor, CO, created a Municipal Water Efficiency Plan to comply with Colorado’s Water Conservation Act of 2004. Included in this plan is the installation of water-efficient fixtures and appliances at town facilities, as well as regular water use audits.
The Northern Colorado Collaborative Efforts in Industrial, Commercial and Institutional Water Conservation has a website resource for information on water conservation targeted at water users and water providers.
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 United States Environmental Protection Agency (2018) Water Conservation at EPA.
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 Cupido, A., et al. (2016) Water Conservation: Observations From A Higher Education Management Perspective. Journal of Green Building, 11(3) 162-182.